Prayer: Before any significant undertaking, we offer our prayers to the
Goddess Saraswathi, the Goddess of Learning, the consort of Lord Brahma and the Supreme Lord to shower His blessings to accomplish it.
Introduction: Srimad Bhagavatham or Bhagavata Purana is a voluminous literary classic composed by the Sage Veda Vyasa or Badarayana, a literary incarnation of Lord Krishna. This was composed by Him when he was at the mature stage of spiritual realisation, after compiling the Vedas, the epic Mahabharatha that contains the Bhagavad Gita, and the esoteric Vedanta Sutras. Srimad Bhagavatham is considered in the category of Suddha Sattwa (Mode of Pure Goodness) or transcendental literature, untouched by even a tinge of materialistic tendency. Srimad Bhagavatham contains ten divisions of faith, covered in 12 Cantos with a total of 335 Chapters, estimated to contain 18,000 shlokas or verses, subject to multiple interpretations/meanings by multiple spiritual masters from multiple sampradayas or unbroken lineage.
This attempt could not be called a summary in the actual sense, it is a miniscule, infinitesimal, insignificant portrayal, a starting point to unleash the treasure to live a life of bliss even in the midst of Kali Yuga. You may go through my post – Reflections on Srimad Bhagavatham Canto 1 to have some introduction and I hope that will give you some insight before going through this post, if you could not have got a chance to come across this ancient literature.
Also please go through this chapter from Srimad Bhagavatham: Srimad Bhagavatham is the answer to all questions.
This post is prepared from my notes while studying Srimad Bhagavatham over the years through various books, commentaries, discourses, audio books etc. I must state that only the first three cantos and about 25% of the 4th canto has been covered and even in that hardly 10% of the areas has been taken. Through the mercy of Lord Shri Krishna and my devotee friends with whom I have discussions, it is my earnest desire to bring this classic wisdom to everyone who could come across it.
Here it is:
Threefold miseries applicable to all living beings:
- From mind and body
- From other living beings
- From other natural causes
12 sensual pleasures (rasas):
- raudra (anger)
- adbhuta (wonder
- śṛṅgāra (conjugal love)
- vīra (chivalry)
- dayā (mercy)
- dāsya (servitorship)
- sakhya (fraternity)
- bībhatsa (shock)
- śānta (neutrality)
- vātsalya (parenthood).
Four major vices of Kali-yoga (also called Age of Quarrel / Age of Darkness) – The present age:
- Illicit connection with women
- Animal slaughter
- Speculative gambling of all sorts.
Six different philosophical systems :
- Jaimini and
Aspects that sap the very vitality of human energy:
- Over-sense gratification
- Overdependence on another’s mercy
- Artificial standards of living.
4 asramas of Sanatana Dharma:
- Bhramacharya, the student life
- Grihastha, the householder’s life
- Vanaprastha, the retired and
- Sanyasa, the devotional life.
4 varnas of Sanatana Dharma:
- Brahmana, the intelligent caste
- Kshatriya, the martial caste
- Vaishya, the productive caste and
- Sudra, the labour caste.
4 yugas(epoch or era):
- Satya-yuga, the golden age
- Tretā-yuga, the silver age
- Dvāpara-yuga, the copper age and
- Kali-yuga, the iron age.
The Absolute Truth:
- Paramātmā and
Four different types of human beings:
- the karmīs
- the jñānīs
- the yogīs and
- the devotees.
Liberation from material bondage:
- Karma yoga
- Gyana yoga
- Bhakti yoga.
Colour of Lord Shri Krishna’s Incarnations in each yuga:
- Black and
From Baladeva, the first phalanx of plenary expansions:
- Pradyumna and
Two classes of Materialists:
- Fruitive workers
- Empiric philosophers
- Transcendental realization
- Pious activities
- Worshiping the Deities
- Charity, mercifulness
- Studying the scriptures under strict disciplinary regulation.
Four classes of good men taking shelter of the God
- When they are in difficulty
- When they are in need of money
- When they are advanced in knowledge
- When they are inquisitive to know more and more about God
Four classes of bad men:
- Those who are simply addicted to the mode of progressive fruitive work and thus are subjected to the accompanying miseries
- Those who are simply addicted to vicious work for sense satisfaction and so suffer the consequence
- Those who are materially very much advanced in knowledge, but who suffer because they do not have the sense to acknowledge the authority of the almighty Lord
- The class of men who are known as atheists and who therefore purposely hate the very name of God, although they are always in difficulty.
Seven synonyms for the word Aatma:
- Brahman (the Absolute Truth
- Personal habits.
Manu, The father of mankind, on killing of animals: “He who gives permission, he who kills the animal, he who sells the slaughtered animal, he who cooks the animal, he who administers distribution of the foodstuff, and at last he who eats such cooked animal food are all murderers, and all of them are liable to be punished by the laws of nature.”
Four principles of material advancement:
- high parentage
- good wealth
- high education and
- attractive beauty
Marks on the feet of the Lord Shri Krishna:
- instrument to drive an elephant
- disc etc.
One Akṣauhiṇī(army division):
- 21,870 chariots
- 21,870 elephants
- 109,650 infantry and
- 65,600 cavalry.
(18 Akasuhini took part in the great battle of Mahabharata)
Rishis assembled to see Bhishmadev before his final departure:
- Parvata Muni
- Vyāsa the incarnation of God
- Paraśurāma and disciples
- Śukadeva Gosvāmī
- Kaśyapa and
Thirteen daughters of Prajāpati Dakṣa:
- Saramā and
Twelve great devotees of the Lord:
- Śukadeva Gosvāmī
- Bali Mahārāja and
Activities of lower animals:
- fearing and
Nine qualifications of human beings:
- Not to become angry
- Not to lie
- To equally distribute wealth
- To forgive
- To beget children only by one’s legitimate wife
- To be pure in mind and hygienic in body
- Not to be inimical toward anyone
- To be simple
- To support servants or subordinates.
Devotional service of the Lord consists of nine principles of service activities:
- Serving the lotus feet
- Executing the orders
- Fraternizing, and
- Fully surrendering.
Seven mothers to everyone:
- The real mother
- The wife of the spiritual master
- The wife of a Brahmana
- The wife of the king
- The cow
- The nurse and
- The earth
Servant of the Senses:
- Madness and
Three classes of Transcendentalists:
- The dhīra, or the one who is not disturbed by being away from family association
- One in the renounced order of life, a sannyāsī by frustrated sentiment and
- A sincere devotee of the Lord, who awakens God consciousness by hearing and chanting and leaves home depending completely on the Personality of Godhead, who resides in his heart.
Imperfections of conditioned living beings:
- Inability and
Five important factors of knowledge in Bhagavad-gītā:
- the Supreme Lord
- the living being
- time and space and
- the process of activity.
Transcendental qualities of The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Shri Krishna:
- intolerance of another’s unhappiness
- the power to control anger
- steadiness of mind
- control of the sense organs
- absence of sense enjoyment
- the power to make everything possible
- the discharge of proper duty
- complete independence
- fullness of all beauty
- perfection in all knowledge
- proper execution
- possession of all objects of enjoyment
- being (as the Personality of Godhead) and
The 14th quality, knowledge refers to:
- power of understanding the circumstantial environments of place, object and time
- perfect knowledge of everything and
- knowledge of the self.
Four legs/principles of religion:
- Mercy and
- Quarrel and
Rsis assembled to see Maharaj Parikshit on his fast unto death:
- Dvaipāyana and
- the great personality Nārada.
Vaikuṇṭha planets (The Supreme Lord’s Abode):
- Dvārakāloka etc.
Ten offenses at the feet of the holy name of the Lord:
- Vilify the great devotees who have preached about the glories of the Lord
- See the holy names of the Lord in terms of worldly distinction
- Neglect the orders of the authorized ācāryas or spiritual masters
- Vilify scriptures or Vedic knowledge
- Define the holy name of the Lord in terms of one’s mundane calculation
- Interpret the holy name
- Commit sins intentionally on the strength of the holy name
- Consider the holy name of the Lord and His chanting method to be equal to some material auspicious activity
- Instruct those who are not interested in chanting the holy name of the Lord
- Become uninterested in the holy name of the Lord even after hearing of the transcendental nature of the holy name.
14 planetary systems:
7 upward planetary systems :
- Tapas and
- Satya one above the other.
7 downward planetary systems one below the other:
- Rasātala and
Virat-rupa : Constituents of the gigantic universal form of the Personality of Godhead, within the body of the universal shell:
- Pātāla – bottoms of the feet of the universal Lord
- Rasātala – the heels and the toes
- Mahātala – The ankles
- Talātala – The Shanks
- Sutala – The knees
- Vitala and Atala – The two thighs
- Mahītala – The hips
- Outer space – The depression of His navel.
- The luminary planetary system — The chest
- Mahar – The neck
- Janas – Mouth
- Tapas – Forehead
- The topmost planetary system, Satyaloka – Head of He who has one thousand heads.
- Demigods headed by Indra – Arms
- The ten directional sides and physical sound is His sense of hearing – Ears
- The two Aśvinī-kumāras, and material fragrance is His sense of smell – Nostrils
- The blazing fire – Mouth
- Sphere of outer space – Eyepits
- Sun as the power of seeing – Eyeball
- Both the day and night – Eyelids
- Brahmā and similar supreme personalities – Movements of His eyebrows
- The director of water, Varuṇa, and the juice or essence of everything is His tongue – Palate
- Vedic hymns – The cerebral passage of the Lord
- Yama, god of death, who punishes the sinners – Jaws of teeth
- The art of affection – His set of teeth
- The most alluring illusory material energy – His smile.
- Great ocean of material creation – The casting of His glance over us.
- Modesty – Upper portion of His lips
- Hankering – His chin
- Religion – His breast
- Irreligion – His back
- Brahmājī – His genitals
- Mitrā-varuṇas – His two testicles
- The ocean – His waist
- The hills and mountains – The stacks of His bones.
- The rivers – The veins of the gigantic body
- The trees – The hairs of His body
- Omnipotent air – His breath
- The passing ages – His movements
- His activities – The reactions of the three modes of material nature.
- The clouds which carry water – The hairs on His head
- The terminations of days or nights – His dress
- The supreme cause of material creation – His intelligence.
- The moon, the reservoir of all changes – His mind
- The principle of matter [mahat-tattva] – The consciousness of the omnipresent Lord
- Rudradeva – His ego.
- The horse, mule, camel and elephant – His nails
- Wild animals and all quadrupeds – The belt zone of the Lord.
- Varieties of birds – His masterful artistic sense
- Manu, the father of mankind – The emblem of His standard intelligence
- Humanity – His residence
- The celestial species of human beings, like the Gandharvas, Vidyādharas, Cāraṇas and angels – His musical rhythm
- The demoniac soldiers – His wonderful prowess.
- The virāṭ-puruṣa’s face : brāhmaṇas, arms : kṣatriyas, thighs : vaiśyas, śūdras : the protection of His feet.
Twenty-four forms of the localized Personality of Godhead:
- Adhokṣaja and
Paramātmā in the heart: Symbols from the lower right hand up and down to the lower left hand with:
- wheel of a chariot
- conchshell and
- club respectively — Janārdana.
Desires and Corresponding Deities of worship:
- To be absorbed in the impersonal brahmajyoti effulgence : Master of the Vedas [Lord Brahmā or Bṛhaspati, the learned priest]
- Powerful sex : Heavenly King, Indra
- Good progeny : Prajāpatis
- Good fortune : Durgādevī, the superintendent of the material world
- Very powerful : Fire
- Only after money : Vasus
- Great hero : Rudra incarnations of Lord Śiva
- Large stock of grains : Aditi.
- Attain the heavenly planets : Sons of Aditi.
- Worldly kingdom : Viśvadeva
- Popular with the general mass of population : Sādhya demigod
- Long span of life : Aśvinī-kumāras
- Strongly built body : The earth
- Stability in his post : Horizon and the earth combined
- To be beautiful : Beautiful residents of the Gandharva planet
- Good wife : Apsarās and the Urvaśī society girls of the heavenly kingdom
- Domination over others : Lord Brahmā, the head of the universe
- Tangible fame : The Personality of Godhead
- Good bank balance : Varuṇa
- Greatly learned man : Lord Śiva
- Good marital relation : Umā, the wife of Lord Śiva.
- Spiritual advancement in knowledge : Lord Viṣṇu or His devotee
- Protection of heredity and advancement of a dynasty : Various demigods.
- Domination over a kingdom or an empire : The Manus
- Victory over an enemy : The demons
- Sense gratification : The moon
- Nothing of material enjoyment : The Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Conclusion: A person who has broader intelligence, whether he be full of all material desire, without any material desire, or desiring liberation, must by all means : The Personality of Godhead.
Five perceptive senses:
- Taste and
Five senses of action:
- Evacuation organs
- Reproductive organs
Three subtle senses:
Five elementary material ingredients:
- Air and
Manifestation of three modes of material nature:
- Ignorance :: Matter
- Passion :: Activities
- Goodness :: Knowledge
Creation of Material Elements:
- From the darkness of false ego à First element – Sky: Subtle form – Sound.
- From Sky à Air: Subtle form – Touch.
- From Air à Fire: Subtle form – Form.
- From Fire à Water: Subtle form – Taste.
- From Water à Earth: Subtle form – Odor.
The effects are cumulative, the subsequent elements accumulating the qualities of previous ones.
Creation from the three modes of material nature:
Mode of Goodness:
- The mind.
- The Ten Gods controlling the bodily movements:
- The controller of directions (Ears)
- The controller of air – (Skin / Touch)
- The sun-god (Eyes)
- The father of Daksha Prajāpati (Reproductive Organs)
- The Aśvinī-kumāras (Nose)
- The fire-god (Tongue / Palate)
- The King of heaven – Indra (Hands)
- The worshipable deity in heaven – (Legs)
- The chief of the Ādityas – (Consciousness)
- Brahmājī, the Prajāpati. (The Heart)
Mode of Passion:
The sense organs:
- The outlet for evacuating
- Intelligence and
- Living energy.
Mode of Ignorance:
The five material elements mentioned above.
Three energies (tri-śakti-dhṛk) of the Lord:
- marginal and
Confirmation of Puruṣa-sūkta, the hymn dedicated to Purusha, the cosmic being:
- The mouth of the virāṭ-puruṣa [the universal form of the Lord] : Generating center of the voice – the controlling deity is Fire
- Skin and six other layers : Generating centers of the Vedic hymns
- Tongue : The productive center of different foodstuffs and delicacies for offering to the demigods, the forefathers and the general mass of people.
- Two Nostrils : The generating centers of breathing and of all other airs
- Smelling powers : Generate the Aśvinī-kumāra demigods and all kinds of medicinal herbs
- Breathing : Different kinds of fragrance.
- Eyes : Generating centers of all kinds of forms that glitter and illuminate
- Eyeballs : Sun and the heavenly planets.
- Ears : Hear from all sides and are receptacles for all the Vedas
- Sense of hearing : Generating center of the sky and of all kinds of sound.
- Bodily surface : Breeding ground for the active principles of everything and for all kinds of auspicious opportunities.
- Skin : Generating center for all kinds of sense of touch and is the place for performing all kinds of sacrifice.
- Hairs on His body – All vegetation, particularly of those trees which are required as ingredients for sacrifice
- Hairs on His head and face : Reservoirs for the clouds
- Nails : Breeding ground of electricity, stones and iron ores.
- Arms : Productive fields for the great demigods and other leaders of the living entities who protect the general masses.
- Forward steps of the Lord : Shelter for the upper, lower and heavenly planets
- Lotus feet : Protection from all kinds of fear.
- Genitals : originate water, semen, generatives, rains and the procreators. Cause of a pleasure that counteracts the distress of begetting.
- Evacuating outlet : Controlling deity of death, Mitra
- Evacuating hole : The rectum of the Lord is the place of envy, misfortune, death, hell, etc.
- Back of the Lord : Place for all kinds of frustration and ignorance, as well as for immorality.
- Veins : Great rivers and rivulets
- Bones : Great mountains.
- Impersonal feature of the Lord : Abode of great oceans
- Belly : Resting place for the materially annihilated living entities
- Heart : Abode of the subtle material bodies of living beings. Thus it is known by the intelligent class of men.
- Consciousness : Abode of religious principles — The Supreme Lord, Brahma, and those of the four bachelors Sanaka, Sanātana, Sanat-kumāra and Sanandana. It is also the abode of truth and transcendental knowledge.
- Phenomenal manifestations of the universes : The planets, stars, asteroids, luminaries, lightning, thunder, and the inhabitants of the different planetary systems.
- Inhabitants of the different planetary systems : The Gandharvas, Apsarās, Yakṣas, Rakṣas, Bhūtagaṇas, Uragas, Paśus, Pitās, Siddhas, Vidyādharas, Cāraṇas, and all other different varieties of living entities.
- Aspects of Time : Past, Present and Future
- That are covered by the universal form of the Lord at all times : Brahmā, Narada, Bhava [Śiva], all the great sages, the demigods, the demons, the Nāgas, the human beings, the birds, the beasts, the reptiles, the phenomenal manifestations of the universes, the inhabitants of the different planetary systems, the birds, beasts, trees and everything that be.
Attributes of the Kingdom of God:
- Freedom from the anxieties of old age and disease.
Fragments of the transcendental potency of the Lord :
- Lord Śiva
- Lord Viṣṇu
- Dakṣa and Prajāpati
- Nārada and the Kumāras
- Indra and Candra
- the leaders of the Bhūrloka planets, earthly planets, lower planets, Gandharva planets, Vidyādhara planets, Cāraṇaloka planets
- Rakṣas and Uragas
- great sages
- great demons
- great atheists
- great spacemen
- dead bodies
- evil spirits
- great aquatics
- great beasts and great birds, etc.
Conclusion: Anything and everything which is exceptionally possessed of power, opulence, mental and perceptual dexterity, strength, forgiveness, beauty, modesty, opulence, and breeding, whether in form or formless.
Main Characters in the Epic Ramayana:
- Lord Rāmacandra – Incarnation of Vāsudeva
- Lakṣmaṇa – Incarnation of Saṅkarṣaṇa
- Bharata – Incarnation of Pradyumna
- Śatrughna – Incarnation of Aniruddha and
- Lakṣmījī Sītā – Internal potency of the Lord.
Demonic personalities Killed by Lord Krishna/Balaram :
- Kuvalayāpīḍa elephant
- great marshals like Śālva
- Dvivida monkey
- the seven bulls
- Sṛñjaya and
- Kekaya etc,
Potencies of the Lord through yoga-māyā potencies known to:
- the all-powerful Śiva
- Prahlāda Mahārāja
- Svāyambhuva Manu
- Aṅga the father of Vena
- Mahārāja Dhruva
- Mahārāja Janaka
- Śukadeva Gosvāmī
- Śrutadeva, etc.
8,400,000 varieties of material bodies in the universe:
- 900,000 in the water
- 2,000,000 vegetable bodies
- 1,100,000 worms and reptiles
- 1,000,000 forms of birds
- ,000,000 different bodies of beasts and
- 400,000 human forms.
Six material changes:
- Deterioration and
Four creative material energies of the Lord: the principles of:
- mahat-tattva and
The elementary sixteen items of matter (Sarga):
- The five elements (earth, water, air, fire and sky)
- the five perceptive sense organs (the eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin)
- the five working sense organs (the hand, the leg, the stomach, the evacuation outlet and the genitals) and
- the mind.
The five sense objects:
- sound and
The twenty-five items serving the Lord in the material creation:
- Four Material creative energies
- Sixteen Material elements and
- Five Sense objects.
Two kinds of penance:
- One for sense gratification
- Other for self-realization.
Three departments of human knowledge disseminated by the Vedas :
- fruitive work (karma-kāṇḍa)
- transcendental knowledge (jñāna-kāṇḍa) and
- devotional service (upāsanā-kāṇḍa).
Ten divisions of statements in Srimad Bhagavatham:
- The creation of the universe
- Sub creation
- Planetary systems
- Protection by the Lord
- The creative impetus
- The change of Manus
- The science of God
- Returning home
- Back to Godhead
- Liberation, and
- The summum bonum
Seven elements of the body:
- The thin layer on the skin
- The skin itself
- The flesh
- Marrow and
- Bone – made of earth, water and fire.
- Water and
Four transcendental qualifications:
- eternal, and
- beyond the conception of mind or word.
Science of God:
- Incarnations of the Personality of Godhead
- His different activities together with the activities of His great devotees.
Potency of His Lordship dividing one into three:
- The controlling entities
- The controlled entities and
- The material bodies.
Manifestations from the transcendental body of Mahā-Viṣṇu:
- Sky : sense energy, mental force and bodily strength, the sum total of the fountainhead of the total living force.
- Living force : hunger and thirst
- Drink and eat : the mouth opened
- Mouth : the palate became manifested, the tongue, the different tastes came into existence.
- Speak : speeches were vibrated from the mouth, Fire was generated from the mouth.
- Smell odors : the nostrils and respiration, nasal instrument and odors, controlling deity of air, carrying smell.
- Eyes, the Sun God: the power of vision and the object of sight all became manifested.
- Great sages to know : the ears, the power of hearing, the controlling deity of hearing, and the objects of hearing became manifested.
- Perceive : physical characteristics of matter, softness, hardness, warmth, cold, lightness and heaviness, the background of sensation, the skin, the skin pores, the hairs on the body and their controlling deities (the trees).
- Perform varieties of work : the two hands and their controlling strength, and Indra, the demigod in heaven.
- Control movement : His legs, from the legs the controlling deity named Viṣṇu.
- Sexual pleasure, begetting offspring and tasting heavenly nectar : the genitals, the genital organ and its controlling deity, the Prajāpati.
- Evacuate the refuse of eatables : the evacuating hole, anus, the sensory organ along with the controlling deity Mitra.
- Move from one body to another : the navel and the air of departure and death. The navel is the shelter for both, namely death and the separating force.
- Have food and drink : the abdomen and the intestines and also the arteries. The rivers and seas are the source of their sustenance and metabolism.
- Think about the activities of His own energy : the heart (the seat of the mind), the mind, the moon, determination and all desires.
- Sense organs : modes of material nature.
- Modes of material nature : false ego.
- Mind : All kinds of material experiences (happiness and distress).
- Intelligence : mind’s deliberation.
Living entities created by the Supreme Lord according to their past deeds :
- Brahmā and his sons like Dakṣa
- the periodical heads like Vaivasvata Manu
- the demigods like Indra, Candra and Varuṇa
- the great sages like Bhṛgu, Vyāsa and Vasiṣṭha
- the inhabitants of Pitṛloka and Siddhaloka
- the Cāraṇas, Gandharvas, Vidyādharas, Asuras, Yakṣas, Kinnaras and angels,
- the serpentines
- the monkey-shaped Kimpuruṣas
- the human beings
- the inhabitants of Mātṛloka
- the demons, Piśācas, ghosts, spirits, lunatics and evil spirits
- the good and evil stars
- the goblins
- the animals in the forest
- the birds
- the household animals
- the reptiles
- the mountains
- the moving and standing living entities
- the living entities born from embryos, from eggs, from perspiration and from seeds, and all others, whether they be in the water, land or sky, in happiness, in distress or in mixed happiness and distress.
Different living creatures according to the different modes of material nature
- Goodness: demigods
- Passion: human beings and
- Darkness: hellish living entities.
Lord’s inferior energy:
- Intelligence and
- False ego.
Lord’s Superior energy (the internal potency of the Lord):
The living entities
Ten kinds of air in the living beings:
- prāṇa – The main air passing through the nose in breathing.
- apāna – The air which passes through the rectum as evacuated bodily air.
- samāna – The air which adjusts the foodstuff within the stomach and which sometimes sounds as belching.
- udāna – The air which passes through the throat and the stoppage of which constitutes suffocation.
- vyāna – The total air which circulates throughout the entire body.
- nāga – That which facilitates the opening of the eyes, mouth, etc.,
- kṛkara – The air which increases appetite.
- kūrma – The air which helps contraction.
- devadatta – The air which helps relaxation by opening the mouth wide (in yawning).
- dhanañjaya – The air which helps sustenance.
Three material manifestations:
- Mouth (speaking power) : Fire (ādhidaiva)
- Speech (ādhyātma)
- Subject matter of the speech (ādhibhūta)
Nine different kinds of creations (prākṛta):
Six natural creations by the external energy of the Lord:
- first – Creation of the mahat-tattva, or the sum total of the material ingredients.
- second – the false ego in which the material ingredients, material knowledge and material activities arise.
- third – sense perceptions and the elements.
- fourth – knowledge and working capacity.
- fifth – Controlling deities by the mode of goodness, of which the mind is the sum total.
- sixth – Ignorant darkness of the living entity.
Creations by Brahmā as an incarnation of the mode of passion:
- seventh – immovable entities –> six kinds –> the fruit trees without flowers, trees and plants which exist until the fruit is ripe, creepers, pipe plants, creepers which have no support, and trees with flowers and fruits.
- eighth – lower species of life numbering twenty-eight –> the cow, goat, buffalo, kṛṣṇa stag, hog, gavaya animal, deer, lamb and camel all have cloven hooves, the horse, mule, ass, gaura, śarabha bison and wild cow all have only one hoof. the dog, jackal, tiger, fox, cat, rabbit, sajāru, lion, monkey, elephant, tortoise, alligator, gosāpa, etc., all have five nails in their claws, the heron, vulture, crane, hawk, bhāsa, bhallūka, peacock, swan, sārasa, cakravāka, crow, owl and others are the birds.
- ninth – human beings.
tenth – vaikṛta – demigods:
Kumāras – both prākṛta and vaikṛta.
- the demigods
- the forefathers
- the asuras, or demons
- the Gandharvas and Apsarās, or angels
- the Yakṣas and Rākṣasas
- the Siddhas, Cāraṇas and Vidyādharas
- the Bhūtas, Pretas and Piśācas, and
- the superhuman beings, celestial singers, etc.
Three kinds of Annihilations:
- Scheduled time of annihilation of the entire universe
- Fire which emanates from the mouth of Ananta (Sankharshana) at the bottom of the universe.
- One’s qualitative actions and reactions.
Division of gross time:
- Two atoms = One double atom
- Three double atoms = One hexatom.
- Three trasareṇus (hexatom) = One truṭi
- One hundred truṭis = one vedha.
- Three vedhas = one lava.
- Three lavas = one nimeṣa
- Three nimeṣas = one kṣaṇa
- Five kṣaṇas = one kāṣṭhā
- Fifteen kāṣṭhās = one laghu.
- Fifteen laghus = one nāḍikā, which is also called a daṇḍa.
- Two daṇḍas = one muhūrta
- Six or seven daṇḍas = one fourth of a day or night.
- There are four praharas = yāmas
- One yāmas = 4 in the day and four in the night of the human being.
- Fifteen days and nights = one fortnight
- Two fortnights, white and black = One month.
- One month = one complete day and night for the Pitā planets.
- Two months = one season
- Six months = one complete movement of the sun from south to north.
- Two solar movements = one day and night of the demigods
- Combination of day and night = one complete calendar year for the human being.
- Duration of Live for human being = one hundred years.
- Four millenniums – Satya-, Tretā-, Dvāpara- and Kali-yuga.
- Total number of years of the four milleniums = twelve thousand years of the demigods.
- Satya millennium = 4,800 years of the years of the demigods
- Tretā millennium = 3,600 years of the demigods
- Dvāpara millennium = 2,400 years
- Kali millennium = 1,200 years of the demigods.
- Four yugas * one thousand = one day or night on the planet of Brahmā.
- Life of one Manu = a little more than seventy-one sets of four millenniums.
- Duration of the two parts of Brahmā’s life = one nimeṣa [less than a second] for the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Table of timings in terms of the modern clock:
- One truṭi — 8/13,500 second
- One vedha — 8/135 second
- One lava — 8/45 second
- One nimeṣa — 8/15 second
- One kṣaṇa — 8/5 second
- One kāṣṭhā — 8 seconds
- One laghu — 2 minutes
- One daṇḍa — 30 minutes
- One prahara — 3 hours
- One day — 12 hours
- One night — 12 hours
- One pakṣa — 15 days
Duration of Yugas:
- Satya-yuga – 4,800 × 360, = 1,728,000 Earth Years.
- Tretā-yuga – 3,600 × 360 = 1,296,000 Earth Years.
- Dvāpara-yuga – 2,400 × 360 = 864,000 Earth Years.
- Kali-yuga – 1,200 × 360 = 432,000 Earth Years.
Four face of Brahmā –> the four Vedas:
The fifth Veda — the Puraṇas and the histories.
Creations of Brahma:
- the sense of death
- anger after frustration
- the sense of false ownership
- the illusory bodily conception, or forgetfulness of one’s real identity
Four great sages from Lord Brahma’s mind:
- Sanātana and
Between the eyebrows: Rudra (Lord Shiva or Sadashiva)
Places for Rudra’s residence:
- the heart
- the senses
- the air of life
- the sky
- the air
- the fire
- the water
- the earth
- the sun
- the moon and
Eleven names of Lord Rudra:
- Vāmadeva and
Eleven wives of Lord Rudra (Rudrāṇīs):
- Svadhā and
Ten sons of Lord Brahma:
- Dakṣa and
Places from Brahma’s body from where these ten sons took birth:
- Nārada –> Deliberation
- Vasiṣṭha –> Breathing
- Dakṣa –> Thumb
- Bhṛgu –> Touch
- Kratu –> Hand
- Pulastya –> Ears
- Aṅgirā –> Mouth
- Atri –> Eyes
- Marīci –> Mind and
- Pulaha –> Navel
More characteristics that took birth from Lord Brahma’s body:
- Religion –> Breast
- Irreligion –> Back
- Lust and desire –> Heart
- Anger –> eyebrows
- greed –> lips
- power of speaking –> mouth
- the ocean –> penis
- low and abominable activities –> anus
- The praṇava oṁkāra — > heart
- The art of literary expression, uṣṇik, — > hairs on the body
- The principal Vedic hymn, gāyatrī — > skin
- The vedic meter triṣṭup — > flesh
- The vedic meter anuṣṭup — > veins
- The vedic meter jagatī — > bones
- The art of writing verse, paṅkti — > bone marrow
- The vedic meter bṛhatī — > life-breath
- Brahmā’s soul — > the touch alphabets
- body — > vowels
- senses — > sibilant alphabets
- strength — > intermediate alphabets and
- sensual activities — > seven notes of music
- shadow – coverings of ignorance of the conditioned souls – five – tāmisra, andha-tāmisra, tamas, moha and mahā-moha.
- Body of ignorance – Yakṣas and Rākṣasas – Night.
- Glory of goodness – the chief demigods. Daytime.
- Buttocks – demons
- Impure body –> evening twilight –> damsel.
- Own loveliness – Gandharvas and Apsarās – form of moonlight – Viśvāvasu and other Gandharvas.
- Sloth – the ghosts and fiends
- Yawning by Brahmā – ghosts and hobgoblins – sleep – drooling – insanity.
- Own invisible form – navel – the hosts of Sādhyas and Pitās – invisible body – śrāddha.
- Invisible capacity of Lord Brahma – Siddhas and Vidyādharas – Antardhāna.
- Own reflection in the water – Kimpuruṣas and Kinnaras – shadowy form – their spouses sing his praises by recounting his exploits at every daybreak.
- Stretched Full length body of Brahma – the hair – snakes – ferocious serpents and Nāgas.
- Mind – The Manus – human form.
- Great sages – austere penance, adoration, mental concentration and absorption in devotion, accompanied by dispassion, control of senses. Characteristics – deep meditation, mental concentration, supernatural power, austerity, adoration and renunciation.
Two other forms:
- The male form: Manu named Svāyambhuva
- the woman: Śatarūpā, the queen of the great soul Manu
Five children of Manu and Śatarūpā:
- two sons – Priyavrata and Uttānapāda and
- three daughters, Ākūti, Devahūti and Prasūti
Sages prayers to Lord Boar describing the various transcendental attributes of His (on Lord Shri Krishna’s incarnation as Lord Varaha):
- Form – performances of sacrifice
- Skin – Vedic hymns, Gāyatrī and others,
- Bodily hairs – kuśa grass,
- Eyes – clarified butter
- Four legs – four kinds of fruitive activities.
- Tongue – plate of sacrifice
- Nostril – another plate of sacrifice
- Belly – eating plate of sacrifice,
- Holes of ears – another plate of sacrifice
- Mouth – Brahmā plate of sacrifice
- Throat – plate of sacrifice known as soma
- Chewing – agni-hotra.
- Repetition of Your appearance – the desire for all kinds of initiation
- Neck – place for three desires
- Tusks – initiation and the end of all desires.
- Tongue – prior activities of initiation
- Head – fire without sacrifice as well as the fire of worship
- Living forces – aggregate of all desires.
- Semen – soma-yajña
- Growth – ritualistic performances of the morning
- Skin and touch sensations – seven elements of the agniṣṭoma sacrifice
- Bodily joints – symbols of various other sacrifices performed in twelve days.
- You – the object of all sacrifices called soma and asoma.
- Supreme Personality of Godhead – worshipable by universal prayers, Vedic hymns and sacrificial ingredients.
Seven islands described in Srimad Bhagavatam that are still current:
- The North Pole
- The South Pole.
Eight divisions of yoga:
- Control of the senses
- Strict following of the rules and regulations
- Practice of the different sitting postures
- Control of the breath
- Withdrawing the senses from sense objects
- Concentration of the mind
Aspirations of people engaged in the modes of material nature:
- To be religious
- To be economically enriched
- To be able to gratify the senses and, at last
- To become one with the Supreme.
Two types of people in family life:
- Gṛhastha – Remain with a wife and children and at the same time attain advancement in spiritual life, a qualified wife is an assistant in every respect for advancement in spiritual activities.
- Grihamedhi – One simply satisfies his senses as a householder, to accept a wife means to satisfy the senses.
Two kinds of brahmacharis (unmarried)
- Naisthika – One who takes a vow of celibacy for his whole life.
- Upakurvana – Who takes the vow of celibacy up to a certain age, then with the permission of his spiritual master, he enters married life.
Four kinds of enemies at home:
- The father is in debt
- The mother has selected another husband in the presence of her grown-up children
- A wife does not live well with her husband but deals very roughly
- A son who is a fool.
Three stages of life for a woman:
- Dependency on the father in childhood
- Dependency on the husband in youth and
- Dependency on the grown-up son in old age.
Nine principal rishis, or sages:
- Vasiṣṭha and
Six circles of vital air circulation:
- First circle within the belly
- Second circle in the area of the heart
- Third is in the area of the lungs
- Fourth is on the palate
- Fifth is between the eyebrows and
- The highest, the sixth circle, is above the brain.
Three different activities for clearing the passage of breath:
- pūraka – Inhaling the breath
- kumbhaka – sustaining it within and
- recaka – exhaling.
Functions of Pranayama (Breath Control):
- To eradicate the contamination of one’s physiological condition
- Concentrating the mind to become free from all sinful activities
- Restraining the senses to free oneself from material association
- Meditating on the Supreme Personality of Godhead to become free from the three modes of material attachment.
Principles of Sankhya Yoga, as explained by Lord Kapiladeva, incarnation of Lord Shri Krishna to his mother Devahuti:
- Puruṣa – the Supreme Personality of Godhead or anyone who imitates the Supreme Personality of Godhead as an enjoyer
- prakṛti – “nature.”
- Intricacies – material world of the relationship of prakṛti and puruṣa, or the enjoyed and the enjoyer.
- saṁsāra – material entanglement.
- Material consciousness –> cause of one’s conditional life –> conditions are enforced upon the living entity by the material energy –> spirit soul does not do anything and is transcendental –> but gets affected by conditional life –> cause of the conditioned soul’s material body and senses, and the demigods –> material nature.
- feelings of happiness and distress of the soul –> caused by the spirit soul himself.
- pradhāna : subtle, undifferentiated sum total of all material elements. when the cause and effect are not clearly manifested (avyakta), the reaction of the total elements does not take place. condition of material nature immediately previous to its manifestation. the five gross elements, the five subtle elements, the four internal senses, the five senses for gathering knowledge and the five outward organs of action.
- prakṛti : When the total material elements are manifested by the interaction of the three modes of material nature
- Five gross elements : earth, water, fire, air and ether.
- Five subtle elements : smell, taste, color, touch and sound.
- Five senses for acquiring knowledge : auditory sense, sense of taste, tactile sense, sense of sight, sense of smell
- Five organs for action : the active organs for speaking, working, traveling, generating and evacuating.
- Four internal/subtle senses : mind, intelligence, ego and contaminated consciousness(false ego). All these are considered the qualified Brahman.
- Mixing element: time – twenty-fifth element. (creation begins as a result of the agitation of the neutral, unmanifested nature).
- Brahman + three qualities goodness, passion and ignorance : material expansion (saguṇa) – twenty-five elements + time factor (past, present and future)
- Brahman – three qualities goodness, passion and ignorance : nirguṇa (simple unalloyed goodness)
- Supersoul – 26th element (the Supreme Personality of Godhead residing within the heart)
- Hiraṇmaya – material nature delivering the sum total of the cosmic intelligence on agitation by the destinations of the conditioned souls.
- mode of goodness – the clear, sober status of understanding the Personality of Godhead – vāsudeva or consciousness.
- release from the false ego – Saṅkarṣaṇa worshiped through Lord Śiva; the snakes covering Lord Śiva – Saṅkarṣaṇa, and Lord Śiva always meditates upon Saṅkarṣaṇa.
- free from mental disturbances – Aniruddha – worship of the moon planet.
- to be fixed in one’s intelligence – Pradyumna reached through the worship of Brahmā.
- material ego (3 types) – mahat-tattva, which evolved from the Lord’s own energy.
- goodness – the mind
- passionate – the senses of perception and the organs of action
- ignorant – the gross elements
- Saṅkarṣaṇa, (Lord Ananta with a thousand heads) – The threefold ahaṅkāra, the source of the gross elements, the senses and the mind.
- false ego – the doer, as an instrument and as an effect – serene(goodness), active(passion) or dull(ignorance).
- false ego of goodness – the mind, whose thoughts and reflections give rise to desire – Lord Aniruddha, the supreme ruler of the senses (a bluish-black form resembling a lotus flower growing in the autumn) – four-handed, with Sudarśana cakra, conchshell, club and lotus flower.
- false ego in passion – intelligence – ascertaining the nature of objects when they come into view, and to help the senses – two kinds of senses: the senses for acquiring knowledge (intelligence), the senses of action (the vital energy).
- distinct characteristics of intelligence – Doubt, misapprehension, correct apprehension, memory and sleep.
- false ego in ignorance – sex energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead – the subtle element sound – the ethereal sky and the sense of hearing.
- sound – idea of an object, presence of a speaker, subtle form of ether.
- ethereal – accommodation of room for the external and internal existences of all living entities, namely the field of activities of the vital air, the senses and the mind.
- ether (evolves from sound) –> time –> the subtle element touch –> the air.
- Touch – Softness and hardness and cold and heat (the subtle form of air)
- action of air – movements, mixing, allowing approach to the objects of sound and other sense perceptions, providing for the proper functioning of all other senses.
- air + touch –> different forms –> fire –> eye –> color.
- form – dimension, quality and individuality.
- fire – effulgence – light, ability to cook, to digest, to destroy cold, to evaporate, to give rise to hunger, thirst, eating and drinking.
- fire + visual sensation –> the subtle element taste –> water –> the tongue.
- taste – astringent, sweet, bitter, pungent, sour and salty.
- water – moistening substances, coagulating various mixtures, causing satisfaction, maintaining life, softening things, driving away heat, refreshing by slaking thirst
- water + taste perception –> the subtle element odor –> the earth and the olfactory sense.
- Odor – mixed, offensive, fragrant, mild, strong, acidic…
- earth – modeling forms, constructing places of residence, preparing pots to contain water, etc – place of sustenance for all elements.
- Sound –> sky, sky –> air, air –> fire, fire –> water, and water –> earth. sky –> sound; air –> sound and touch; fire –> sound, touch and form; water –> sound, touch, form and taste; earth –> sound, touch, form, taste and smell (reservoir of all the qualities and the sum total of all other elements). earth –> all five qualities of the elements, water –> four qualities, fire –> three, air –> two, sky –> only one quality, sound.
- unmixed elements –> the Supreme Personality of Godhead + time + work, + qualities of the modes of material nature –> the total material energy in seven divisions(the five material elements, the total energy (mahat-tattva) and the false ego) –> unintelligent egg ( manifestation of material energy) –> layers of water, air, fire, sky, ego and mahat-tattva –> outside layer covered by pradhāna –> Within this egg is the universal form of Lord Hari, of whose body the fourteen planetary systems are parts –> the virāṭ-puruṣa
Process taken by the demigods and presiding deities to wake their origin of appearance (by reentering the body of the virāṭ-puruṣa one after another):
- god of fire entering His mouth with the organ of speech
- god of wind entering His nostrils with the sense of smell
- sun-god entering the eyes with the sense of sight
- deities of the directions entering through His ears with the sense of hearing
- deities of the skin, herbs and seasoning plants entering the skin with the hair of the body
- god predominating over water entered His organ of generation with the faculty of procreation
- god of death entering His anus with the organ of defecation
- god Indra entering the hands with their power of grasping and dropping things
- Lord Viṣṇu entering His feet with the faculty of locomotion
- rivers entering His blood vessels with the blood and the power of circulation
- ocean entering His abdomen with hunger and thirst
- moon-god entering His heart with the mind
- Brahmā entering His heart with intelligence
- Lord Rudra entering His heart with the ego, but even then the Cosmic Being did not stir.
- the inner controller, the deity presiding over consciousness, entered the heart with reason, the Cosmic Being arose from the causal waters.
- man in sleep –> material assets — the vital energy, senses for recording knowledge, senses for working, the mind and the intelligence — cannot arouse him – can be aroused only when the Supersoul helps him –> devotion, detachment and advancement in spiritual knowledge –> concentrated devotional service –> contemplate that Supersoul as present in this very body although simultaneously apart from it.
Eight kinds of forms of the Lord:
- Contemplated within the mind
- Painted colours.
System of yoga, to concentrate the mind:
- Execute his prescribed duties to the best of his ability
- Avoid performing duties not allotted to him
- Satisfied with as much gain as he achieves by the grace of the Lord,
- Worship the lotus feet of a spiritual master.
- Cease performing conventional religious practices and attracted to those which lead to salvation.
- Eat very frugally
- Remain secluded so that he can achieve the highest perfection of life.
- Practice nonviolence and truthfulness, should avoid thieving
- Satisfied with possessing as much as he needs for his maintenance.
- Abstain from sex life,
- Perform austerity, Be clean,
- Study the Vedas
- Worship the supreme form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
- Observe silence,
- Acquire steadiness by practicing different yogic postures,
- Control the breathing of the vital air,
- Withdraw the senses from sense objects
- Concentrate the mind on the heart.
- Fix the vital air and the mind in one of the six circles of vital air circulation within the body
- Concentrate one’s mind on the transcendental pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead
- Control the contaminated, unbridled mind
- Fix himself in thought of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
- Spread a seat in a secluded and sanctified place,
- Sit there in an easy posture,
- Keeping the body erect, and practice breath control.
- Clear the passage of vital air by practising pranayama system of breathing.
- Concentrate on the tip of the nose with half-closed eyes and see the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Devotional service under various modes of material nature:
- The mode of darkness: a person who is envious, proud, violent and angry, and who is a separatist.
- The mode of passion: a separatist, with a motive for material enjoyment, fame and opulence.
- The mode of goodness: offering the results of one’s activities in order to free oneself from the inebrieties of fruitive activities.
Hierarchy of superiority of material objects:
–> living entities –> display life symptoms
–> developed consciousness
–> who have developed sense perception
–> who have developed only the sense of touch
–> who have developed the sense of taste
-> who have developed the sense of smell
–> who have developed the sense of hearing
–> who can distinguish between one form and another
–> who have developed upper and lower sets of teeth
–> who have many legs
–> the quadrupeds
–> the human beings
–> the society which is divided according to quality and work
–> the intelligent men, who are designated as brāhmaṇas
–> one who has studied the Vedas
–> one who knows the actual purport of Veda
–> who can dissipate all doubts
–> who strictly follows the brahminical principles
–> who is liberated from all material contamination
–> a pure devotee, who executes devotional service without expectation of reward.
Development of embryo inside the female body (Embryology in Srimad Bhagavatham):
- Development of the body of the soul in four different ways : the trees and plants from the earth; flies, germs and bugs from perspiration; birds etc. from eggs; and humans etc. from an embryo.
- The first night, the sperm and ovum mix,
- The fifth night the mixture ferments into a bubble.
- Tenth night it develops into a form like a plum, and after that, it gradually turns into a lump of flesh or an egg.
- Course of a month, a head is formed,
- At the end of two months the hands, feet and other limbs take shape.
- The end of three months, the nails, fingers, toes, body hair, bones and skin appear, as do the organ of generation and the other apertures in the body, namely the eyes, nostrils, ears, mouth and anus.
- Four months from the date of conception, the seven essential ingredients of the body, namely chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and semen, come into existence.
- Five months, hunger and thirst make themselves felt,
- End of six months, the foetus, enclosed by the amnion, begins to move on the right side of the abdomen.
- The development of consciousness from the seventh month after conception,
- The ten-month-old , the wind that helps parturition propels him forth with his face turned downward so that he may be born.
Different processes of self-realization for understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead:
- Performing fruitive activities and sacrifices
- Distributing charity
- Performing austerities
- Studying various literatures
- Conducting philosophical research
- Controlling the mind
- By subduing the senses
- Accepting the renounced order of life
- Performing the prescribed duties of one’s social order
- Performing the different divisions of yoga practice
- Performing devotional service
- Exhibiting the process of devotional service containing the symptoms of both attachment and detachment
- Understanding the science of self-realization
- Developing a strong sense of detachment.
Eight divisions in yogic practice:
- dhyāna and
Three Principal deities (Trimurtis), their governing mode of material nature, their vehicle and their primary weapon:
- Lord Viṣhṇu – Mode of Goodness, a big aquiline bird(Garuda), disc (Sudharshana Chakra)
- Lord Brahma – Mode of Passion, Swan, kuśa grass.
- Lord Shiva – Mode of Ignorance/Darkness, Bull, a small drum called a ḍamaru.
Six qualities for the highly elevated:
- Youth and
Description of Lord Nārāyaṇa :
- seated on the shoulder of Stotra, or Garuḍa, who had big wings
- face – lotus flower with bees humming over it,
- blackish complexion
- garment yellow like gold,
- helmet as dazzling as the sun.
- hair bluish, the color of black bees,
- face decorated with earrings
- eight hands held a conchshell, wheel, club, lotus flower, arrow, bow, shield and sword, and decorated with golden ornaments such as bangles and bracelets,
- whole body – blossoming tree beautifully decorated with various kinds of flowers,
- extraordinarily beautiful because the goddess of fortune and a garland on His chest,
- face beautifully decorated with a smiling attitude which can captivate the entire world,
- Fans of white hair on both sides of the Lord like white swans,
- white canopy overhead like the moon.
Pre-requisites for performing Yayna(Sacrifice):
- The altar
- The auspicious full moon
- The period of four months called cāturmāsya
- The sacrificial animal
- The beverage called soma
- The specific hymns mentioned in the Vedas composed of four letters.
Signs of devastation:
- Irreligion and Falsity
- Harsh Speech
- Severe Pain and
Twelve forests in the area of Vṛndāvana:
- five forests on the eastern bank of the Yamunā: Bhadravana, Bilvavana, Lauhavana, Bhāṇḍīravana and Mahāvana.
- Seven forests on the western bank of the Yamunā: Madhuvana, Tālavana, Kumudavana, Bahulāvana, Kāmyavana, Khadiravana and Vṛndāvana.
ghāṭas, or bathing places in these forests:
- Mallayuddha-sthān, and
Ingredients for offering worship to the Lord:
- Pure water
- Pure flower garlands
- Newly grown grasses
- Small buds of flowers
- Skins of trees
- Tulasi leaves.
Prince Dhruva’s Penance:
- First month : consuming only fruits and berries on every third day
- Second month : consuming only dry grass and leaves every six days
- Third month : consuming only drank water every nine days
- Fourth month : consuming only inhaled air every twelfth day
- Fifth month: controlled his breathing so perfectly to stand on only one leg, just as a column stands, without motion.
Presentation for King Pṛthu’s (plenary expansion of the supreme personality of Godhead) coronation:
- Kuvera – golden throne
- Varuṇa – umbrella that constantly sprayed fine particles of water
- Vāyu – two whisks [cāmaras] of hair
- Dharma – flower garland
- Indra – helmet
- Yamarāja – scepter to rule the world
- Lord Brahmā – protective garment made of spiritual knowledge
- Bhāratī(Sarasvatī) – transcendental necklace
- Lord Viṣṇu – Sudarśana disc
- the goddess of fortune – imperishable opulences
- Lord Śiva – sword within a sheath marked with ten moons
- Durgā – shield marked with one hundred moons
- moon – horses made of nectar
- Viśvakarmā – a very beautiful chariot
- Agni – a bow made of the horns of goats and cows
- sun-god – arrows as brilliant as sunshine
- predominating deity of Bhūrloka – slippers full of mystic power
- demigods from outer space – presentations of flowers
- demigods who always travel in outer space – the arts to perform dramas, sing songs, play musical instruments and disappear at his will
- great sages – infallible blessings
- the ocean – conchshell produced from the ocean
- The seas, mountains and rivers – room to drive his chariot without impediments, a sūta, a māgadha and a vandī – prayers and praises.
Maharaja Prthu on milking the planet earth with various living entities:
- King Pṛthu –> Svāyambhuva Manu – calf; all the herbs and grains from the earth in the form of a cow – cupped hands.
- Great sages –> Bṛhaspati – calf; all kinds of Vedic knowledge to purify words, mind and hearing – making the senses into a pot.
- Demigods –> Indra – calf; earth – soma (which is nectar).
- Sons of Diti and the demons –> Prahlāda Mahārāja – calf, liquor and beer – pot made of iron.
- Gandharvaloka and Apsaroloka –> Viśvāvasu – calf; milk – lotus-flower pot.
- Pitṛloka –> Aryamā – calf; kavya, food offered to the ancestors – unbaked earthen pot.
- Siddhaloka + Vidyādhara-loka –> sage Kapila – calf; specific yogic mystic powers, beginning with aṇimā – the whole sky into a pot.
- Kimpuruṣa-loka –> demon Maya – calf; mystic powers by which one can disappear immediately from another’s vision and appear again in a different form.
- Yakṣas + Rākṣasas + ghosts + witches –> Lord Śiva’s incarnation Rudra [Bhūtanātha] – calf; beverages made of blood – pot made of skulls.
- Cobras + snakes without hoods + large snakes + scorpions +many other poisonous animals –> Takṣaka – calf; poison out of the planet earth and kept this poison in snake holes.
- Cows –> bull who carries Lord Śiva – calf; fresh green grasses – milking pot out of the forest.
- Tigers etc. –> lion – calf; flesh for milk.
- The birds –> Garuḍa – calf; moving insects and nonmoving plants and grasses.
- The trees –> banyan tree – calf; many delicious juices.
- The mountains –> Himālayas – calf; variety of minerals – pot made of the peaks of hills.
Various entities worshipped by King Pṛthu at the sacrificial arena:
- great sages
- inhabitants of Pitṛloka, Gandharvaloka, Siddhaloka, Cāraṇaloka, Pannagaloka, Kinnaraloka, Apsaroloka, earthly planets and
- planets of the birds.
Twenty-six qualities of a devotee:
- Kind to everyone
- Does not quarrel with anyone
- Fixed in the Absolute Truth
- Equal To Everyone
- Completely Attached To Lord Shri Krishna
- Has No Material Hankering
- Does Not Eat More Than Required
To be continued…